Cystotomy is most indicated for treatment of bladder problems including removal of bladder stones, bladder tumors, and blood clots. This procedure also can be done to obtain a biopsy sample of the urinary bladder. Cystotomy is done to repair a rupture or severe trauma to the urinary bladder. In cases of abnormal insertion of the ureters into the bladder (these are the thin long tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), a cystotomy incision will be needed to correct the problem.
Caesarean section in dog
A caesarean section, or C-section, is major surgery performed to remove puppies from the uterus. This is most commonly performed as an emergency procedure when there is difficulty with natural birth. Most dogs recover quickly from this procedure; however, if your dog was in labor for several hours before surgery was performed, her recovery will be slower, and she will need extra attntion and help with her puppies.